Consumo de alcohol y factores de riesgo de conductas autolesivas en adolescentes españoles

Matilde Bousoño, Susana Al-Halabí, Patricia Burón, Marlen Garrido, Eva Mª Díaz-Mesa, Gonzalo Galván, Leticia García-Álvarez, Ángela Velasco, Julia Rodríguez-Revuelta, Camilla Wasserman, Vladimir Carli, Christina Hoven, Marco Sarchiapone, Danuta Wasserman, Manuel Bousoño, Mª Paz García-Portilla, Celso Iglesias, Pilar Alejandra Sáiz, Julio Bobes

Resumen


Las conductas autolesivas en niños y adolescentes constituyen un importante problema de salud pública con cifras de prevalencia en la población clínica entre el 40 y 80%. Los objetivos del estudio son analizar y comparar las submuestras españolas de dos trabajos, SEYLE y WE-STAY, para conocer la prevalencia, los patrones de autolesión y los factores asociados a las conductas autolesivas, en particular el consumo de alcohol o drogas. Los cuestionarios utilizados en ambos estudios fueron la Encuesta Global de Salud Escolar (GSHS), el Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI-II), el Cuestionario de Fortalezas y Dificultades (SDQ). Los comportamientos autolesivos fueron evaluados con una versión modificada de 6 ítems basada en el Inventario de Autolesiones Deliberadas (DSHI). La independencia de las variables categóricas del estudio se evaluó mediante la prueba Ji-Cuadrado. El cambio en el riesgo relativo de autolesión entre el estudio SEYLE y WE-STAY, se evaluó a través del cálculo de odds ratio (OR). Se calcularon dos modelos de regresión logística diferentes con el fin de establecer los factores asociados con comportamientos autolesivos en cada estudio. En el presente estudio las tasas de DSH varían en función del estudio y del sexo en un rango entre 0,58% y 2,08%, presentando patrones de autolesiones diferentes según el sexo, los hombres se autolesionaron más frecuentemente mediante golpes autoinfligidos y quemaduras, mientras que las mujeres se hicieron más frecuentemente cortes. La presencia de síntomas depresivos y el consumo de alcohol fueron los factores asociados de forma más robusta a un mayor riesgo de DSH.



Palabras clave


Conductas autolesivas; adolescentes; depresión; consumo de alcohol; SEYLE; WE-STAY. Self-harm behaviors; adolescents; depression; alcohol compsumption; SEYLE; WE-STAY

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1239

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