Prevención del tabaquismo con mensajes narrativos. Estudio experimental sobre el efecto conjunto de la similitud con el protagonista y la voz narrativa

Juan-José Igartua, Laura Rodríguez-Contreras, María Marcos-Ramos, Beatriz González-de-Garay, Francisco Javier Frutos

Resumen


El presente trabajo se centra en la prevención del tabaquismo utilizando mensajes narrativos. En particular, se analiza el papel de dos características de los mensajes narrativos que pueden influir, de manera indirecta, en la intención de dejar de fumar, las expectativas de auto-eficacia y la percepción de la eficacia de la respuesta preventiva. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una investigación experimental (N = 680, 50% mujeres y rango de edad 18-55 años) con un diseño factorial 2 (voz narrativa: mensaje en primera vs. tercera persona) x 2 (similitud con el protagonista: baja vs. alta). Los resultados mostraron que la condición óptima de recepción (narración en primera persona protagonizada por un personaje similar a la audiencia) indujo niveles más elevados de identificación con el protagonista (un exfumador describía el proceso de abandono del tabaco y las mejoras que ha experimentado desde entonces). Los análisis mediacionales mostraron que la condición óptima de recepción ejercía efectos indirectos significativos sobre las variables dependientes que se debían al aumento de la identificación y la reducción de la reactancia. Además, la condición óptima de recepción también ejerció un efecto indirecto significativo sobre la eficacia percibida de la respuesta preventiva que se explicaba por el incremento de la identificación y la reducción de la contra-argumentación. El presente trabajo abre una línea de estudio sobre la construcción de mensajes narrativos para la prevención del tabaquismo. Se pone de manifiesto la relevancia de las características que dichos mensajes deben tener para que se activen procesos mediadores que faciliten la persuasión.


Palabras clave


Comunicación en salud; Prevención del tabaquismo; Persuasión narrativa; Similitud con el protagonista; Voz narrativa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1339

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